New to psychological network analysis? Looking for an overview of the literature, or tutorials on how to estimate network models? This site contains a list of introduction and tutorial papers, articles, and blog posts. If you know of other good resources, please let me know so I can update the page.


Workshop materials

  • The best starting point to pick up both network theory and network methodology are the workshops and summer/winter schools we have been giving. Materials for the last 5-day winter school in Amsterdam 2019 are available on the Open Science Framework. Materials for the international 1 to 3-day workshops we have been giving in the last few years are also available online for free.

Psych-networks.com tutorials

Conceptual/theory papers and book chapters

  • Borsboom, D. (2017). A network theory of mental disorders. World Psychiatry. (PDF)
  • Fried, E. I., van Borkulo, C. D., Cramer, A. O. J., Boschloo, L., Schoevers, R. A., & Borsboom, D. (2017). Mental disorders as networks of problems: a review of recent insights. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology. (PDF)
  • Mõttus, R., & Allerhand, M. (2017). Why do traits come together? The underlying trait and network approaches. In V. Zeigler-Hill & T. Shackelford (Eds.), SAGE handbook of personality and individual differences: Volume 1. The science of personality and individual differences. (PDF)
  • McNally, R. J. (2016). Can network analysis transform psychopathology? Behaviour Research and Therapy.(PDF)
  • Borsboom, D., & Cramer, A. O. J. (2013). Network analysis: an integrative approach to the structure of psychopathology. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology. (PFD)
  • Kendler, K. S., Zachar, P., & Craver, C. (2011). What kinds of things are psychiatric disorders? Psychological Medicine. (PDF)
  • Cramer, A. O. J., Waldorp, L. J., van der Maas, H. L. J., & Borsboom, D. (2010). Comorbidity: a network perspective. The Behavioral and Brain Sciences. (PDF)


  • Haslbeck, Bringmann, & Waldorp (preprint): How to estimate time-varying Vector Autoregressive Models? A comparison of two methods. (PDF)
  • Epskamp & Fried (2018). A Tutorial on Regularized Partial Correlation Networks, Psychological Methods.This tutorial paper explains in detail how regularization works in psychological networks, and includes a long FAQ on common problems and issues encountered when estimating between subjects networks (PDF)
  • Beltz & Gates (2017). Network Mapping with GIMME. Multivariate Behavioral Research. (PDF)
  • Costantini et al. (2017). Stability and variability of personality networks. Personality and Individual Differences. A tutorial on recent developments in network psychometrics. Personality and Individual Differences. Shows how to disentangle within from between person effects, and introduces the Fused Graphical Lasso (simultaneous network estimation across different groups). (PDF)
  • Dalege et al. (2017). Network Analysis on Attitudes. Social Psychological and Personality Science. Tutorial on the estimation, analysis, and simulation on attitude networks. (PDF)
  • Epskamp, Borsboom & Fried (2017). Estimating Psychological Networks and their Accuracy: A Tutorial Paper. Behavioral Research Methods. Covers network estimation, inference, and accuracy of parameter estimates. (PDF)
  • Bringmann et al. (2016). Assessing Temporal Emotion Dynamics Using Networks. Assessment (PDF). The supplementary materials of this paper contain both R and Matlab codes.
  • Costantini et al. (2015). State of the aRt personality research: A tutorial on network analysis of personality data in R. Journal of Research in Personality. (PDF)
Other media

Limitations and criticism of the network approach

  • Williams & Rast (2019). Back to the basics: Rethinking partial correlation network methodology. British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology.
  • Williams et al. (2019). On Nonregularized Estimation of Psychological Networks. Multivariate Behavioral Research.
  • Bringmann et al. (2019). What do centrality measures measure in psychological networks? Preprint
  • Fried & Cramer (2017). Moving forward: challenges and directions for psychopathological network theory and methodology. Perspectives on Psychological Science. (Preprint)
  • Guloksuz, Pries, & Van Os (2017). Application of network methods for understanding mental disorders: pitfalls and promise. Psychological Medicine, 1–10. 10.1017/S0033291717001350. (PDF)
  • Bulteel et al. (2016). Using raw VAR regression coefficients to build networks can be misleading. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 51, 330-344. (URL)
  • Terluin, de Boer, & de Vet (2016). Differences in Connection Strength between Mental Symptoms Might Be Explained by Differences in Variance: Reanalysis of Network Data Did Not Confirm Staging. PLOS ONE 11(11): e0155205. (URL)

(Disclaimer: If you have suggestions of tutorials that should be included here, please let me know. Manuscripts provided here are for academic purposes only and not intended for mass dissemination or copying. Please refer to applicable fair use laws, including the restrictions from publication copyright holders.)