New to psychological network analysis? Looking for an overview of the literature, or tutorials on how to estimate network models? This site contains a list of introduction and tutorial papers, articles, and blog posts. Please help me fill this section and send me papers, blogs, and other suggestions!

Workshop materials

  • The best starting point to pick up both network theory and network methodology are the network analysis workshops we have been giving. All materials – including slides, R-syntax, example data, and references – are available here for free. Feel free to contact me if you are interested to host a workshop at your University! The workshops cover network estimation, inference, and accuracy of both cross-sectional and time-series network models.

Psych-networks.com tutorials

Conceptual introductions

  • Fried, E. I., van Borkulo, C. D., Cramer, A. O. J., Boschloo, L., Schoevers, R. A., & Borsboom, D. (accepted). Mental disorders as networks of problems: a review of recent insights. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology. (Preprint)
  • McNally, R. J. (2016). Can network analysis transform psychopathology? Behaviour Research and Therapy.(PDF)
  • Borsboom, D., & Cramer, A. O. J. (2013). Network analysis: an integrative approach to the structure of psychopathology. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology. (PFD)
  • Schmittmann, V. D., Cramer, A. O. J., Waldorp, L. J., Epskamp, S., Kievit, R. A., & Borsboom, D. (2013). Deconstructing the construct: A network perspective on psychological phenomena. New Ideas in Psychology. (PDF)
  • Cramer, A. O. J., Waldorp, L. J., van der Maas, H. L. J., & Borsboom, D. (2010). Comorbidity: a network perspective. The Behavioral and Brain Sciences. (PDF)


General tutorials
Estimating networks in cross-sectional data
  • Epskamp, S., & Fried, E. I. (under revision). A Tutorial on Regularized Partial Correlation Networks.
    This tutorial paper explains in detail how regularization works in psychological networks (Preprint).
  • Epskamp, S., Borsboom, D., & Fried, E. I. (accepted). Estimating Psychological Networks and their Accuracy: A Tutorial Paper.
    This paper explains the estimation of regularized partial correlation networks, and how to check them for accuracy and stability (Preprint).
  • Jonas Haslbeck: Predictability in network models. Allows you to estimate how much R^2 of each node in the network is explainde by its neighbors.
  • Jonas Haslbeck: Mixed graphical models (MGM). In contrast to the Ising Model (binary data) and the Gaussian Graphical Model (Gaussian data), MGM can feature different types of variables in the same network. Tutorial 1: estimating MGMs (blog post). Tutorial 2: interactions between categorical variables blog post).
  • Costantini, G., Epskamp, S., Borsboom, D., Perugini, M., Mõttus, R., Waldorp, L. J., & Cramer, A. O. J. (2015). State of the aRt personality research: A tutorial on network analysis of personality data in R. Journal of Research in Personality. (PDF).
Estimating networks in time-series data
  • Bringmann, L. F., Pe, M. L., Vissers, N., Ceulemans, E., Borsboom, D., Vanpaemel, W., … Kuppens, P. (2016). Assessing Temporal Emotion Dynamics Using Networks. Assessment (PDF)
    The supplementary materials of this paper contain both R and Matlab codes.

Limitations and criticism of the network approach

  • Fried, E. I. & Cramer, A. O. J. (under revision). Moving forward: challenges and directions for psychopathological network theory and methodology. Perspectives on Psychological Science. (Preprint)
  • Bulteel, K., Tuerlinckx, F., Brose, A., Ceulemans, E. (2016). Using raw VAR regression coefficients to build networks can be misleading. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 51, 330-344. (URL)
  • Terluin B., de Boer, M. R., de Vet, H. C. W. (2016). Differences in Connection Strength between Mental Symptoms Might Be Explained by Differences in Variance: Reanalysis of Network Data Did Not Confirm Staging. PLOS ONE 11(11): e0155205. (URL)
  • Bos, E. H., & Wanders, R. B. K. (2016). Group-level symptom networks in depression. JAMA Psychiatry, 73(4), 411. (URL)